Family Name Corundum

Usually the most expensive coloured stone, which takes its name from the Latin for red, Rubinus.


Humans discovered Ruby around 3000 BC. In Sanskrit, the sacred language of ancient India, Ruby is defined as 'Ratnaraj' meaning 'King of Gems.' Many Europeans wore rubies for guaranteeing health, wisdom, wealth and success in love. The Mogok mining area in Burma has been mined for years producing some of the world's finest quality Ruby.


  • Characteristics



The name Ruby is derived from the Latin word 'Ruber' which means 'Red.' Stones that are light to very light are defined as pink sapphire. Corundum is found in various places on the earth's surface, but the transparent gem material is formed only in ideal circumstances.

Ruby is also considered as the birthstone for July and is known as the world's best-loved and known red gem. Large and fine quality rubies are very rare but produced worldwide.

Out of the total stones mined every year only 1 % can be categorized as top quality rubies. It is mainly due to the presence of imperfections like cracks, clouds, and silk in most of the produced gemstones. However more than clarity, the colour matters in most of these cases.

The most expensive Ruby colour is deep, pure and vivid red. Rubies also have little pinkish, purplish and orangy red hues. Rubies with red or very slightly purplish red of strong intensity are the most desired and commonly available.

An essential factor in making the most desirable colours is cutting the stone in the correct orientation to the original crystal face. The quality of cutting affects the color brilliance of the stone. Right colour combination, brilliance & increasing carat size increases the value of the ruby. High-quality 10 carat & above stones are extremely rare.

Some Rubies show an incredible silky shine, the so-called 'silk' of the Ruby. The reason for this phenomenon are inclusions of fine Rutilum needles.

Star Rubies are very rare and show the bright star lines on a cabochon cut surface. Again the Rutilum mineral is involved here: it is embedded in an 'asterisk shape' meaning 'Star' within the Ruby thus causing the charming light effect which is termed 'Asterism' by experts.


Hardness 9 on Mohs Scale
Toughness Usually excellent, but stones with certain treatments for large fractures or inclusions can be less durable

Burma Ruby: - The finest types of Rubies are produced in Burma. 'Pigeon's Blood,' which is pure red with a hint of blue is the most desired color. Distribution of color is mostly uneven with spots or stripes.

Ceylon Ruby: - These light red or purplish stones are found in Sri Lanka. Lighter in tone, these gems are brilliant compared to Burmese or Siamese stones.

Siam or Thai Ruby:- This variety of Rubies are dark red to brownish red in character. However, the stones found in Pailin Cambodia have very fine color.

Star Ruby:- They have a Ruby color and display distinct asterism when cut in cabochon.

African Ruby:- Some good quality purplish red stones have come from Tanzania, Longido, and Lossogonoi. Some unusually fine rubies have emerged from the Saul mine in Kenya.

Type of Cleaning Steam Cleaning Ultrasonic Cleaning Warm, Soapy water
Needs Expert Advise Usually safe. Needs Expert Opinion Safe, but avoid strong detergents and vigorous scrubbing